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Rio Orinoco

One of the eco systems in the world

The eco Orinoco River system is one of the largest in South America, originated along the southern borders of Venezuela and Brazil, in the state of Amazonas. The exact length of the river is still undetermined, with estimates of between 1,500 and 1,700 miles (2.410 to 2.735 km) long, making it one of the world's largest systems of rivers.

It flows northwest, next, creating the border with Colombia, and then turns east and bisects Venezuela on its way to the Atlantic. North of the Orinoco are extensive grassy plains called llanos. South of the river is about half the territory of Venezuela. Large areas of tropical forests cover the southwestern part of the lot, and most remain largely inaccessible. The bulk of the Guianas, also known as the Guyana Shield, covers the rest. The Guyana Shield is composed of pre-rock Cambriam, up to 2.5 million years, and some of the oldest on the continent. These are the tepuis, stone plateaus breeding ground of the forest. The most famous are Roraima tepuis and Auyantepuy, where the Angel falls.

Over 200 rivers are tributaries of the mighty Orinoco that extie delta nde 1290 miles (2150 km) from source to delta. During the rainy season, the river reaches a width of 13 miles (22 km) in San Rafael de Barrancas and a depth of 330 feet (100 m). (See map) 1000 miles (1670 km) of the Orinoco is navigable, and about 341 of which can be used to navigate large boats.

The Orinoco River is composed of four geographic areas:

Alto Orinoco

The Orinoco begins Chalbaud mountain, a tall and narrow river with waterfalls and difficult terrain, forests. (See map) The most notable fall in this area, 56 feet (17 m) is Salto Libertador. Navigation, where possible in this part of the river is shallow cave, or canoe. 60 miles (100 km) of the source, the first tributary, the Ugueto, joins the Orinoco. Later, the descent slows and waterfalls are quick, fast and difficult to navigate. 144 miles (240 km) downstream, the Upper Orinoco, complete with quick Guaharibos.

Amazon is the largest state in Venezuela, and contains two large national parks, and Tapirapecó Parima Serranía de la Neblina, and small parks and natural monuments, as the Cerro Autana tepuy south of Puerto Ayacucho, which is the the tribe's sacred mountain Piaroa they believe is the birthplace of the universe.

This is also the home of many native tribes, the most famous are the Yanomami, Piaroa and Guajibo. Puerto Ayacucho, which has an airport with flights in and out of Caracas and other smaller cities, is the main gateway to the state. There are commercial and tourist facilities. Accommodation, known as camps, offering varying degrees of comfort. The field is best known Yutaje Camp in eastern Puerto Ayacucho Valley Manapiare. It has its own airstrip and capacity for thirty people.

Traffic in and out is by boat and by air, but the roads are being constructed and maintained, especially Samariao upriver beyond the rapids. Take this virtual tour of the river and the landscapes of the state of Amazonas.

Middle Orinoco

For the next 450 miles (750 km), from rapid to rapid Guaharibos Atures, Orinoco extends west to the river and joins Mavaca waters northward. Other tributaries, including the participating Ocamo and the river widens to 1320 feet (500 m) and sandy sediment forms small islands in the river bed. The Casiquiare and Esmeralda (see map) Orinoco rivers flow to join together to form the Black River, which eventually reaches the Amazon.

The river joins Cunucunuma and deviates from the Orinoco to the northwest, bordering the Guyana Shield. The river Ventuari brings enough sand to form the beaches of San Fernando de Atabapo. When rivers Atabapo, Guaviare (see map) and current Irínida join the Orinoco is extended to nearly 5000 feet (1500 m).

Most Aboriginal people living in the Venezuelan Orinoco River basin. The most important indigenous groups are the Guaica (Waica), also known as the Guaharibo, and Maquiritare (Makiritare) of the southern highlands, the Warao (Warao) of the delta region, and Yaruros Guahibo and the Western Plains. These people live in intimate relationship with the rivers of the basin, using as a source of food as well as for the purpose of communication. (Encyclopedia Britannica)

More tributaries flow, increasing the flow of water and the creation of a new series of powerful rapids through Atures Maipures and Puerto Ayacucho. (See map) This is the only place where the Orinoco is navigable. (See map)

Lower Orinoco

Extending from the rapids of Atures to Piacoa, this 570 miles (950 km) accepts most of the tributaries. When the target is bound, the river turns to the northeast, and the rivers Cinacuro, Capanaparo and Apure, turns east. (See map) The Manzanares, iguanas, Suata, Pao, Caris, Caroni, Paragua, Carrao, the Caura, Aro and rivers Cuchivero add to the bulk of the Orinoco. The river here is wide and slow. (See map)

This section of the Orinoco is the most developed and populated. As oil hits in the mid 20th century, industrialization, commercialization and the population has grown. Ciudad Bolívar and Ciudad Guayana have become important cities built high enough away from the river banks to prevent flooding.

Among the islands in the river in Ciudad Bolivar is the Alexander von Humboldt called Orinocómetro. It serves as a tool for measuring the rise and fall of the river. No actual stations along the Orinoco, but the rainy season is known as winter. It starts in April and lasts until October or November. The torrents swollen with rain from the mountains carrying dirt and rocks and other materials from the highlands in the Orinoco. Can not handle this excess, the river rises and floods the plains and surrounding areas. The highest water period is usually in July, when the water level in Ciudad Bolivar can go from 40 to 165 feet deep. The waters begin to recede in August and again in November at the low point.

Founded in 1961, in Ciudad Guayana, downstream of Ciudad Bolivar, produces steel, aluminum and paper, thanks to the power generated by dams Macagua and Guri in the Caroni River. Growing up in the fastest growing city in Venezuela, which extends over the river and has incorporated the XVI century town of San Felix, on the one hand and the new town of Puerto Ordaz, on the other. There is a major highway between Caracas and Ciudad Guayana, but most of the transport needs of the area are still served by the Orinoco.

Written by :
Henrik Bratfeldt
 
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