The Yanomami are an indigenous tribe living in the Upper Orinoco, Amazonas State are a subgroup linguistically an ethnic Now nomama also made Sanema (Sanima) Ninam (Yanam) and Yanomam. In these subgroups, except the last which occupies only the Brazilian territory, all others are found in both Venezuela and Brazil. Most experts now rank Yanomama language and its various topolectos as independent, although some felt in old threads that should be included in the Chibcha language family.
The Yanomami, also known in the literature as Yanomamo, Yanoama, Waika, Guaharibo, Shiriana, Shirishana Kirischana and, among others, are the largest indigenous group in the state of Amazonas and the fifth of the total Indian population in Venezuela. According to the Indian Census 1992 for Amazonas state Yanomami population (including the subgroup Sanema) amounts to 13,347 individuals.
The Yanomami live in a vast territory stretching from the headwaters of the Orinoco River and the mountains of Parima to Siapa river middle basin, tropical rain forest region. For centuries, the Yanomami have lived on the land and ensures that the present inhabitants of the communities located near the Orinoco river settlements had their origin in the Sierra Parima.
The Yanomami traditionally live in remote jungle on the banks of the great rivers, but in the last fifty years, as a result of a considerable increase in population, several groups were established on the banks of the Orinoco, Mavaca, Ocamo and Manaviche , strengthening their stay in these areas with the arrival of missionaries and natives.
Assembled in about 180 villages, shabono (longhouse), the Yanomami are grouped into communities of 40 to 200 individuals each, where they operate domestic recreational and rituals. Each group being linked by strong ties of kinship nuclear family being the basic social unit. Productive forms Yanomami, agriculture provides about 79.4% of the food they eat. The conuco prepared by the slash and burn system of cultivation is predominant varied species of banana and less cassava, cocoyam, maize, mapuey, sugar cane, snuff and cottony, among others. To complement and enrich the daily diet, the Yanomami collect wild fruits, tubers, honey, edible insects, crabs, etc.., Commonly work being performed by women.
The activity that supplies the more protein the Yanomami is hunting, which is developed in two ways by men: one done on a day and in an area relatively close to call shabono huu rami and a longer duration, three or more days, call heniyomi huu. Dams are prized hunting tapir, peccary, paca, the turkey, deer, monkey and agouti, among others.
In the Upper Orinoco rivers there are a variety of fish conplementan Yanomami diet, these include: striped, peacocks, pacu, bully, guabina, pomfret, caribbean, arenca, barracuda, etc.. The Yanomami are several ways to make fishing: using Guaral and hooks in rivers and lakes (non-traditional) with braided basket width at low water when the fish are trapped in pipes, wells and ponds, with their hands looking for fish hiding among branches, mud and leaves, and with the use of plant extracts (mullein). For the Yanomami, one of the most important celebrations in their society are the funeral rites where the ashes of the deceased consumed diluted carato banana. This ceremony is called reahu also an important time in terms of political, social and economic life of the Yanomami people, since it lays bonds of solidarity, alliances, exchanges of material and symbolic goods.